Gallbladder adenocarcinoma is an uncommon and serious disease. The primary disease grows rapidly with local invasion into the liver and with distant spread to lymph nodes. It is often detected late, due to which management can be challenging. Despite routine use of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) for detection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often considered for a detailed assessment of the anatomic behavior of these tumors. We share three cases where 18-FDG PET/CT played a role in management thereof.
Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare condition associated with lymphomas in which various structures of the nervous system are infiltrated by malignant lymphocytes. Rarely, it may be the presenting feature of recurrence of lymphoma otherwise deemed to be in remission. It is crucial, as is the case with all types of nodal or visceral involvement of lymphoma, to identify the disease early and initiate treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has been shown to be a sensitive modality for staging, restaging, biopsy guidance, therapy response assessment, and surveillance for recurrence of lymphoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is another useful imaging modality, which, along with PET/CT, compliment cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) cytology and electromyography (EMG) in the diagnosis of NL. Performing nerve biopsies to confirm neurolymphomatosis can be challenging and with associated morbidity. The case presented herein illustrates the practical usefulness of these tests in detecting NL as a heralding feature of lymphoma recurrence, especially in the absence of histopathologic correlation.
Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare disease characterized by malignant lymphocytes infiltrating various structures of the nervous system. It typically manifests as a neuropathy involving the peripheral nerves, nerve roots, plexuses, or cranial nerves. It often presents as a complication of lymphoma, but it can be the presenting feature of recurrent lymphoma. It is essential to identify and initiate treatment early with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy in all cases of nodal or visceral (including neural) involvement with lymphoma. There are various diagnostic tests that can be used for its detection, such as cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) cytology, electromyography (EMG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). FDG-PET/CT is the standard of care in lymphoma staging, restaging, and therapy response assessment, but has an inherent limitation in the detection of disease involvement in the central nervous system. While that is mostly true for visual assessment, there are quantitative methods to measure variation in the metabolic activity in the brain, which in turn helps detect the occurrence of neurolymphomatosis.