Diagnostic yield of FDG PET/CT, MRI, and CSF cytology in nonbiopsiable Neurolymphomatosis as a heralding feature of Diffuse B-cell Lymphoma recurrence.

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Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare condition associated with lymphomas in which various structures of the nervous system are infiltrated by malignant lymphocytes. Rarely, it may be the presenting feature of recurrence of lymphoma otherwise deemed to be in remission. It is crucial, as is the case with all types of nodal or visceral involvement of lymphoma, to identify the disease early and initiate treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has been shown to be a sensitive modality for staging, restaging, biopsy guidance, therapy response assessment, and surveillance for recurrence of lymphoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is another useful imaging modality, which, along with PET/CT, compliment cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) cytology and electromyography (EMG) in the diagnosis of NL. Performing nerve biopsies to confirm neurolymphomatosis can be challenging and with associated morbidity. The case presented herein illustrates the practical usefulness of these tests in detecting NL as a heralding feature of lymphoma recurrence, especially in the absence of histopathologic correlation.

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