The Effects of Weight Loss on Imaging Outcomes in Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee in People who are Overweight or Obese: A Systematic Review

Copyright © 2019 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2020 Jan;28(1):10-21. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2019.10.013. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the structural effects of weight loss on hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to summarize which structural joint pathologies have been examined and the evidence for the outcome measurement instruments applied.
DESIGN:
Based on a pre-specified protocol (available: PROSPERO CRD42017065263), we conducted a systematic search of the bibliographic databases, Medline, Embase and Web of Science identifying longitudinal articles reporting the effects of weight loss on structural imaging outcomes in OA of the hip or knee in people who are overweight or obese.
RESULTS:
From 1625 potentially eligible records, 14 articles (from 6 cohorts) were included. 2 cohorts were derived from RCTs. Evaluated pathologies were: articular cartilage (n = 7), joint space width (n = 3), bone marrow lesions (n = 5), synovitis (n = 2), effusion (n = 1), meniscus (n = 3), bone marrow density (n = 1) and infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP; n = 2). Cartilage showed conflicting results when evaluating cartilage thickness by direct thickness measurements. Compositional dGEMRIC and T2 mapping measures in early knee OA showed trends towards reduced cartilage degeneration. Joint space width on conventional radiographs showed no change. Weight loss reduced the size of the IPFP. Synovitis and effusion were not affected. Following weight loss DXA showed bone loss at the hip.
CONCLUSION:
We did not find consistent evidence of the effects of weight loss on OA structural pathology in people who are overweight or obese. There is a need to achieve consensus on which structural pathologies and measurements to apply in weight loss and OA research.

The Role of Advanced MRI in the Development of Treat-to-Target Therapeutic Strategies, Patient Stratification and Phenotyping in Rheumatoid Arthritis

In this commentary we discuss the potential of advanced imaging, particularly Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the objective assessment of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We emphasise the potential DCE-MRI in advancing the field and exploring new areas of research and development in RA. We believe that different grades of bone marrow edema (BME) and synovitis in RA can be examined and monitored in a more sensitive manner with DCE-MRI. Future treatments for RA will be significantly improved by enhanced imaging of BMEs and synovitis. DCE-MRI will also facilitate enhanced stratification and phenotyping of patients enrolled in clinical trials.

A Phase IV, Multicenter, Single-Arm, Open-Label Study to Evaluate the Impact of Apremilast on Hand and Whole-Body MRI Outcomes in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis (MOSAIC): Rationale, Design, and Methods.

Copyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2019 June;78(2)_suppl. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-eular.1368

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Phase III clinical trials have shown apremilast (APR) reduced PsA signs/symptoms and improved physical function,but no study has addressed its impact on structural disease progression. MRI is a highly sensitive, validated tool to assess inflammatory and structural changes, as it can detect soft tissue inflammation, bone marrow edema (BME) lesions, bone erosion and proliferation in peripheral joints and axial skeleton. Whole-body (WB)-MRI, a relatively novel technique in musculoskeletal studies, allows assessment of all peripheral/axial joints and entheses in 1 examination. Recent, consensus-based and semi-quantitative scoring methods were developed and validated. This study is the first to systematically use new state-of-the-art MRI scoring methodologies to assess PsA inflammatory and structural changes in a global clinical trial.

OBJECTIVES:
To assess APR efficacy on inflammatory indices and imaging outcome measures associated with PsA structural progression by conventional static MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI of the most affected hand and WB-MRI.

METHODS:
The study aims to enroll 120 biologic-naïve adults with PsA for ≥3 mos to ≤5 yrs and prior treatment with ≤2 conventional DMARDs. Subjects must have ≥3 swollen and ≥3 tender joints, hand involvement (≥1 swollen joint or ≥1 dactylitis) and ≥1 active enthesitis site. After 4-wk screening, all eligible patients will receive APR 30 mg twice daily (titrated during the first 5 days) as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate for 48 wks, with a 4-wk observational follow-up. Conventional MRI and optional DCE-MRI of the most affected hand and WB-MRI of the entire body will be performed at Wks 0, 24 and 48. The primary endpoint is change from BL to Wk 24 in OMERACT PsA MRI (PsAMRIS) composite score of BME + synovitis + tenosynovitis. Other imaging endpoints include change from BL to Wk 48 in PsAMRIS composite score (BME + synovitis + tenosynovitis) and change from BL to Wks 24 and 48 in PsAMRIS composite score (BME + synovitis), PsAMRIS composite inflammation score (BME + synovitis + tenosynovitis + periarticular inflammation), PsAMRIS total damage score (erosion + bone proliferation), WB-MRI indices (including peripheral joint inflammation index and peripheral enthesis inflammation index), hip and knee inflammation MRI scores (HIMRISS, KIMRISS), OMERACT heel enthesitis MRI indices, axial inflammation indices (SPARCC, CanDen), DEMRIQ-Volume and DEMRIQ-Inflammation and other DCE-MRI–derived parameters. Clinical parameters will include SJC/TJC, cDAPSA, SPARCC Enthesitis Index, Leeds Enthesitis Index, Leeds Dactylitis Index, PASDAS, PtGA, PhGA, Patient’s Assessment of Pain, HAQ-DI, and BASDAI and impact of disease (PsAID12). Safety and tolerability also will be assessed.

RESULTS:
The study protocol was approved by an independent ethics committee and is now enrolling in the USA. Selected countries in Europe and Russia will also participate. MRI, clinical and patient-reported outcomes will be analyzed.

CONCLUSION:
This study will provide important evidence of APR’s impact on inflammatory/structural changes by assessing all PsA musculoskeletal domains (peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, dactylitis and axial disease). Furthermore, it will yield information on use of conventional MRI–, WB-MRI– and DCE-MRI–driven outcome measures in PsA clinical trials.

Less Severe Synovitis in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis is Associated with Higher Self-Reported Pain Intensity 12 Months After Total Knee Arthroplasty- An Exploratory Cohort Study.

Copyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2019 June;78(2)_suppl. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-eular.5695

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Synovitis is a pain generator in patients with osteoarthritis and associated with upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been found to lead to pain sensitivity and worse self-reported pain(1).

OBJECTIVES:
This study aimed to investigate the association between pre- and perioperative synovitis from imaging and histology and self-reported pain 12 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

METHODS:
Preoperative synovitis was assessed from MRI data of the knee by 11 point synovitis score a.m Guermazi (2) using contrast enhanced MRI (CE-synovitis) and heuristic time intensity curve analysis of the dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data using the DYNAMIKA® software (Image Analysis group, London) providing Dynamic Enhanced MR Quantification (DEMRIQ) Indices (3). Perioperative synovitis was also assessed from biopsies of the synovium in 6 predefined places graded histologically a.m Krenn (4). Worst pain within the last 24-hours (visual analog scale, VAS, 0-100) was assessed before and 12 months after TKA. Patients were divided into a low-pain (VAS≤30) and a high-pain (VAS>30) group based on 12-months postoperative VAS.

RESULTS:
Twenty-six patients had full pre- and postoperative data and were analysed. The high-pain group had significantly lower CE-synovitis (P=0.03), DCE-MRI inflammation indices (DEMRIQ-inflammation) (P<0.03) and a trend towards lower histologically assessed synovitis grades (P=0.077) compared to the low-pain group at baseline. Preoperative synovitis scores were also inversely correlated with pain 12-months after TKA, CE-synovitis (R = – 0.455, P = 0.022) and DCE-MRI inflammation (R = -0.528, P = 0.007), indicating that more severe preoperative synovitis is associated with less severe pain at 12-months.

CONCLUSION:
Higher preoperative synovitis scores are associated with less postoperative pain 12-months after TKA. Further, correlation analysis revealed that less severe preoperative synovitis was associated with worse pain 12-months after TKA, suggesting that CE and DCE-MRI synovitis quantification could be used as imaging markers for prediction of good surgical outcomes.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tenosynovitis and Osteitis are Independent Predictors of Radiographic and MRI Damage Progression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients In Clincial Remission

Copyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2019 June;78(2)_suppl. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-eular.2006

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Progression of structural joint damage occurs in 20-30 % of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical remission1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected synovitis and in particular osteitis/bone marrow edema (BME) are known predictors of structural progression in both active RA and in remission, but the predictive value of adding MRI tenosynovitis assessment as potential predictor in patients in clinical remission has not been investigated.

OBJECTIVES:
To investigate the predictive value of baseline MRI inflammatory and damage parameters on 2 year MRI and X-ray damage progression in an RA cohort in clinical remission, following MRI and conventional treat-to-target (T2T) strategies.

METHODS:
200 RA patients in clinical remission (DAS28-CRP<3.2 and no swollen joints) on conventional DMARDs, included in the randomized IMAGINE-RA trial2 (conventional DAS28 + MRI-guided T2T strategy targeting absence of BME vs conventional DAS28 guided T2T strategy) had baseline and 2 years contrast-enhanced MRIs of the dominant wrist and 2nd-5th MCP joints and X-rays of hands and feet performed, which were evaluated with known chronology by two experienced readers according to the OMERACT RAMRIS scoring system and Sharp/van der Heijde method, respectively.

The following potentially predictive baseline variables: MRI BME, synovitis, tenosynovitis, MRI and X-ray erosion and joint space narrowing (JSN) score, CRP, DAS28, smoking status, gender, age and patient group were tested in univariate logistic regression analyses with 2-year progression in MRI combined damage score, Total Sharp Score (TSS), and MRI and X-ray JSN and erosion scores as dependent variables. Variables with p<0.1, age, gender and patient group were included in multivariable logistic regression analyses with backward selection.

RESULTS:
Based on univariate analyses MRI BME, synovitis, tenosynovitis, x-ray erosion and JSN, gender and age were included in subsequent multivariable analyses. Independent MRI predictors of structural progression were BME (MRI progression) and tenosynovitis (MRI and X-ray progression), MRI combined damage score: sum score of MRI erosion and JSN scores.

CONCLUSION:
This trial is the first to report that MRI tenosynovitis independently predicts both X-ray and MRI damage progression in RA patients in clinical remission. Further studies are needed to confirm MRI-determined tenosynovitis as predictor of progressive joint destruction in RA clinical remission.

Effect of Liraglutide on Body Weight and Pain in Patients with Overweight and Knee Osteoarthritis: Protocol for a Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Single-Centre Trial

Copyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ
BMJ Open. 2019 May;9(5) doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024065

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:
With an increasing prevalence of citizens of older age and with overweight, the health issues related to knee osteoarthritis (OA) will intensify. Weight loss is considered a primary management strategy in patients with concomitant overweight and knee OA. However, there are no widely available and feasible methods to sustain weight loss in patients with overweight and knee OA. The present protocol describes a randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in a 3 mg/day dosing in patients with overweight and knee OA.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS:
150 volunteer adult patients with overweight or obesity and knee OA will participate in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group and single-centre trial. The participants will partake in a run-in diet intervention phase (week −8 to 0) including a low calorie diet and dietetic counselling. At week 0, patients will be randomised to either liraglutide 3 mg/day or liraglutide placebo 3 mg/day for 52 weeks as an add-on to dietetic guidance on re-introducing regular foods and a focus on continued motivation to engage in a healthy lifestyle. The co-primary outcomes are changes in body weight and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score pain subscale from week 0 to week 52.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:
The trial has been approved by the regional ethics committee in the Capital Region of Denmark, the Danish Medicines Agency and the Danish Data Protection Agency. An external monitoring committee (The Good Clinical Practice Unit at Copenhagen University Hospitals) will oversee the trial. The results will be presented at international scientific meetings and through publications in peer-reviewed journals.

Impact of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Treat-to-Target Strategy on Disease Activity and Progression in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (The IMAGINE-RA Trial): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Copyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2015.
Trials. 2015 Apr;7(178)_suppl doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0693-2
Trial registration: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01656278 (5 July 2012)

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive joint disease, which frequently leads to irreversible joint deformity and severe functional impairment. Although patients are treated according to existing guidelines and reach clinical remission, erosive progression still occurs. This demonstrates that additional methods for prognostication and monitoring of the disease activity are needed. Bone marrow edema (BME) detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be an independent predictor of subsequent radiographic progression. Guiding the treatment based on the presence/absence of BME may therefore be clinically beneficial. We present the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to evaluate whether an MRI-guided treatment strategy compared to a conventional treatment strategy in anti-CCP-positive erosive RA is better to prevent progression of erosive joint damage and increase the remission rate in patients with low disease activity or clinical remission.

METHODS/DESIGN:
The study is a non-blinded, multicenter, 2-year RCT with a parallel group design. Two hundred anti-CCP-positive, erosive RA patients characterized by low disease activity or remission, no clinically swollen joints and treatment with synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) will be included. Patients will be randomized to either a treatment strategy based on conventional laboratory and clinical examinations (control group) or a treatment strategy based on conventional laboratory and clinical examinations as well as MRI (intervention group). Treatment is intensified according to a predefined treatment algorithm in case of inflammation defined as a disease activity score (DAS28) >3.2 and at least one clinically swollen joint (control and intervention groups) and/or MRI-detected BME (intervention group only). The primary outcome measures are DAS28 remission (DAS28 < 2.6) and radiographic progression (Sharp/vdHeijde score).

DISCUSSION:
The perspectives, strengths and weaknesses of this study are discussed.