Early Response Assessment Through Multiparametric MRI Based Endpoints In A Phase II Multicenter Study Evaluating the Efficacy of DPX-Survivac, Intermittent Low Dose Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and Pembrolizumab Combination Study in Subjects with Solid Tumors.

Copyright © 2019 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2019 May;37(15)_suppl doi: 10.1200/JCO.2019.37.15_suppl.e14245

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Accurate assessment of tumor response to immunotherapy is challenged by pseudoprogression that mimics true progression. Conventional imaging and RECIST assessment do not adequately distinguish between them given their inability to account for changes in the tumor microenvironment. DPX-Survivac is a novel T cell activating therapy that triggers immune responses against tumors expressing survivin and is being studied in this trial in combination with CPA and pembrolizumab in several solid tumors. Multiparametric MRI approaches – dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging MRI are useful for accurate assessment of structural, perfusion and vascular assessment of the lesion and may identify pseudoprogression and compare to the RECIST-based assessment.
METHODS:
The study will enroll up to 226 evaluable subjects in 5 different cohorts: ovarian cancer, HCC, NSCLC, bladder cancer and MSI-H cancer. These subjects will undergo initial imaging 28 days prior to treatment, to be assessed based on RECIST 1.1, and a pre-treatment tumor biopsy for quantitation of survivin and PD-L1 expression and MSI analyses. Treatment for 35 cycles or until disease progression. All patients will have CT images for RECIST 1.1 and iRECIST assessment. A subset of subjects will undergo mpMRI to calculate advanced imaging biomarkers.
RESULTS:
MRI, clinical and patient-reported outcomes will be analyzed.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study will provide important evidence on the utility of mpMRI + CT-based assessment of response to immunotherapy and use it as an adjunct to the CT-based RECIST criteria by providing insight on how tumor lesions are impacted by treatment.

Multi-Parametric MRI As Supplement to mRANO Criteria for Response Assessment to MDNA55 in Adults with Recurrent or Progressive Glioblastoma.

Copyright © 2019 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
Journal of Clinical Oncology May 2019; 37(15)_suppl DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2019.37.15_suppl.e13559

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Modified response assessment in neuro-oncology (mRANO) criteria are widely used in GBM but seem insufficient to capture Pseudoprogression (PsP), which occurs due to extensive inflammatory infiltration, increased vascular permeability, tumor necrosis and edema. mRANO criteria recommend volumetric response evaluation using contrast-enhanced T1 subtraction maps for identifying PsP. Our approach incorporates multi-parametric MRI biomarkers to unravel the true PsP from recurrence or distinguish Pseudo Response (PsR) – following anti-VEGF agents – from delayed (immuno)response.
METHODS:
Multiple time-points MRI (18-24h after convection-enhance delivery of the anti-IL4-R agent MDNA55, then at 30-day intervals) was utilized to determine response. Multi-parametric MRI biomarkers analyzed included (1) 3D-FLAIR-T2-based tumor volume assessment reflecting edema, necrosis and tumor infiltration; (2) 3D-gadolinium-enhanced-based tumor volume estimation reflecting active tumor infiltration, neo-angiogenesis and disrupted blood brain barrier; (3) Dynamic susceptibility contrast-based relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) measurements for estimation of the vascular tumour properties; and (4) Diffusion weighted imaging – Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements that assess interstitial edema, tumor cellularity and ischemic injury.
RESULTS:
We demonstrate similar imaging phenotypes on conventional FLAIR-T2- and enhanced T1- MR images among different disease states (PsP vs true progression, PsR vs and immuno-response) and describe the perfusion and diffusion MRI biomarkers that improve response staging including PsP masking true progression, PsP masking clinical response, early progression with delayed response, and differentiation between true and PsR. The results are compared with the mRANO-based assessments for concurrence.
CONCLUSION:
Incorporating multi-parametric MRI measurements to determine the complex underlying tissue processes enables a better assessment of PsP, PsR and delayed tumour response, and can supplement mRANO-based response assessments in GBM patients undergoing novel immunotherapies.

Decision Making in Surveillance of High-Grade Gliomas Using Perfusion MRI as Adjunct to conventional MRI and Artificial Intelligence.

IAG & UCL poster for the 2019 ASCO Annual Meeting

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Surveillance of High-Grade Gliomas (HGGs) remains a major challenge in clinical neurooncology. Histopathological validation is not an option during the course of disease and imaging surveillance suffers from ambiguous features of both disease progression and treatment related changes. This study aimed to differentiate between Pseudoprogression (PsP) and Progressive Disease (PD) using an artificial intelligence (support vector machine – SVM) classification algorithm.
METHODS:
Two groups of patients with histologically proven HGGs were analysed, a group with a single time point DSC perfusion MRI (45 patients) and a group with multiple time point DSC perfusion MRI (19 patients). Both groups included conventional MRI studies prior and after each perfusion MRI. This study design aimed to replicate decision making in clinical practice including multiple previous studies for each patient. SVM training was performed with all available MRI studies for each group and classification was based on different feature datasets from a single or multiple (subtracted features) time points. Classification accuracy comparisons were performed by calculating prediction error rates for different feature datasets and different time point analyses.
RESULTS:
Our results indicate that the addition of multiple time point perfusion MRI combined with structural (conventional with gadolinium-enhanced sequences) MRI features results in optimal classification performance (median error rate: 0.016, lowest value dispersion). Subtracted feature datasets improved classification performance, more prominently when the final and first perfusion studies were included in the analysis. On the contrary, in the single time point group analysis, structural feature-based classification performed best (median error rate: 0.012).
CONCLUSION:
Validation of our results with a larger patient cohort may have significant clinical importance in optimising imaging surveillance and clinical decision making for patients with HGG.

MRI Findings of Rapidly Progressive Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Copyright © Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2010 Jul;28(6) doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2010.03.005. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Abstract

PURPOSE:
The purpose of this study is to determine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and patient characteristics in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that exhibit rapid progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In this unblinded retrospective study, initial and follow up MR images were reviewed, before and after rapid progression of HCC, respectively. Rapid progression was defined as a lesion <3 cm which exhibited >3 cm increase in one year or 2 cm increase in 6 months. Patient characteristics and MRI findings were determined using clinical information from the institution clinical information system and records from the Radiology and Pathology Departments, Hepatology Division and Liver Transplant Service of the Department of Medicine.
RESULTS:
Seven individuals were identified with HCC that showed rapid progression. Five of the patients had underlying hepatitis C, one had alcoholic hepatitis, and one had immunosuppression due to liver transplantation. On initial MRI, six patients had early intense ring enhancing lesions, which rapidly progressed in size. Five patients died within 6 months, one within 1 year after progression despite treatment. Six of the seven patients also had multiple other liver nodules on initial MRI; those that showed ring enhancement rapidly progressed but those without, did not show rapid progression.
CONCLUSION:
Patients with rapidly progressive HCC had underlying hepatitis C and intense ring enhancement on initial MRI. This group of patients should be evaluated further to determine if they might benefit from early intervention.

Richter Transformation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Review of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography and Molecular Diagnostics

Copyright © 2017 © 2017, Shaikh et al.
Cureus. 2017 Jan;9(1) doi: 10.7759/cureus.968

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a low-grade B-cell proliferative disease with a generally indolent course. In a few cases, it undergoes transformation and becomes a more aggressive malignancy, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This process, which is called Richter transformation (RT), is often detected too late and is associated with a poor prognosis. There are multiple molecular diagnostic approaches to detect RT in preexisting CLL. Metabolic imaging using 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) can be a very useful tool for early detection of RT and which can hence allow for timely intervention, thereby improving the patient’s chances of survival.

Technical Challenges in the Clinical Application of Radiomics

Radiomics is a quantitative approach to medical image analysis targeted at deciphering the morphologic and functional features of a lesion. Radiomic methods can be applied across various malignant conditions to identify tumor phenotype characteristics in the images that correlate with their likelihood of survival, as well as their association with the underlying biology. Identifying this set of characteristic features, called tumor signature, holds tremendous value in predicting the behavior and progression of cancer, which in turn has the potential to predict its response to various therapeutic options. We discuss the technical challenges encountered in the application of radiomics, in terms of methodology, workflow integration, and user experience, that need to be addressed to harness its true potential.

Voxel-wise correlation of PET/CT with multiparametric MRI and histology of the prostate using a sophisticated registration framework.

OBJECTIVES:

To develop a registration framework for correlating positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and histology of the prostate, thereby enabling voxel-wise analysis of imaging parameters.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

In this prospective proof-of-concept study, nine patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy underwent mpMRI and PET/CT imaging prior to surgery. One had PET imaging using 18 F-fluoromethylcholine (FCH), five using 68 Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-HBED-CC (PMSA-11) and three using a trial 68 Ga-labelled THP-PSMA tracer. PET/CT data was co-registered with mpMRI via the CT scan and an in vivo 3D T2w MRI, and then co-registered with ground truth histology data using ex vivo MRI of the prostate specimen. Maximum and mean standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) were extracted from PET data using tumour annotations from histology, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were carried out to compare between tumour and benign voxel values. Correlation analysis was performed between mpMRI and PET SUV tumour voxels using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and R squared statistics.

RESULTS:

PET/CT data from all nine patients were successfully registered with mpMRI and histology data. SUVmax and SUVmean ranged from 2.21 to 12.11 and 1.08 to 4.21, respectively. All patients showed the PET SUV values in benign and tumour voxels were from statistically different distributions. Correlation analysis showed no consistent trend between the T2w or ADC values and PET SUV. However, parameters from DCE MRI including the maximum enhancement (ME), volume transfer constant Ktrans and the initial area under the contrast agent concentration curve (iAUGC60) showed consistent positive correlations with PET SUV. Furthermore, R2* values from BOLD MRI showed consistent negative correlations with PET SUV voxel values.

CONCLUSION:

We have developed a novel framework for registering and correlating PET/CT data at a voxel-level with mpMRI and histology. Despite registration uncertainties, perfusion and oxygenation parameters from DCE MRI and BOLD imaging showed correlations with PET SUV. Further analysis will be performed on a larger patient cohort to quantify these proof-of-concept findings. Improved understanding of the correlation between mpMRI and PET will provide supportive information for focal therapy planning of the prostate.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Gallbladder and Biliary System

Gallbladder and biliary system pathologic component is a spectrum of benign and malignant conditions. Standard magnetic resonance imaging techniques when used together with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) can evaluate gallbladder and biliary system pathologic conditions. Inflammatory diseases are characterized by thickening and intense mucosal contrast enhancement of the affected bile ducts and or gallbladder wall. Postinflammatory changes can be appreciated on MRCP with short or long segment strictures of the bile ducts. Serial contrast-enhanced images show reactive inflammatory changes in the liver parenchyma. Neoplastic diseases of the gallbladder and the biliary tree are evaluated on T2-weighted fat-suppressed echo train and serial contrast-enhanced images and their obstructive effect can be displayed on MRCP images. In this paper, we will review the spectrum of MRI findings of gallbladder and biliary system pathologic conditions.

Sinonasal NUT-Midline Carcinoma – A Multimodality Approach to Diagnosis, Staging and Post-Surgical Restaging

Nuclear protein testis (NUT) midline carcinoma is a rare malignancy involving predominantly the midline structures of the body. It is characterized by its genotypic feature of BRD4-NUT translocation, which is in contrast with other malignant processes that are usually categorized based on their histologic/phenotypic features. As these tumors may vary in their histologic presentation, they can be misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated carcinomas. Moreover, they are often very aggressive and associated with high mortality. Therefore, it is extremely important to diagnose them early using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perform staging and restaging using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18-FDG PET/CT), in addition to accurately identifying them at a microscopic and molecular level. We report a unique case of a sinonasal NUT midline carcinoma that was diagnosed with CT, staged with PET/CT, and restaged using PET/CT and MRI.