Quantitative Imaging in Inflammatory Arthritis: Between Tradition and Innovation.

Radiologic imaging is crucial for diagnosing and monitoring rheumatic inflammatory diseases. Particularly the emerging approach of precision medicine has increased the interest in quantitative imaging. Extensive research has shown that ultrasound allows a quantification of direct signs such as bone erosions and synovial thickness. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (CT) contribute to the quantitative assessment of secondary signs such as osteoporosis or lean mass loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using different techniques and sequences, permits in-depth evaluations. For instance, the perfusion of the inflamed synovium can be quantified by dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging or diffusion-weighted imaging, and cartilage injury can be assessed by mapping (T1ρ, T2). Furthermore, the increased metabolic activity characterizing the inflammatory response can be reliably assessed by hybrid imaging (positron emission tomography [PET]/CT, PET/MRI). Finally, advances in intelligent systems are pushing forward quantitative imaging. Complex mathematical algorithms of lesions’ segmentation and advanced pattern recognition are showing promising results.

The Effects of Weight Loss on Imaging Outcomes in Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee in People who are Overweight or Obese: A Systematic Review

Copyright © 2019 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2020 Jan;28(1):10-21. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2019.10.013. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the structural effects of weight loss on hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to summarize which structural joint pathologies have been examined and the evidence for the outcome measurement instruments applied.
DESIGN:
Based on a pre-specified protocol (available: PROSPERO CRD42017065263), we conducted a systematic search of the bibliographic databases, Medline, Embase and Web of Science identifying longitudinal articles reporting the effects of weight loss on structural imaging outcomes in OA of the hip or knee in people who are overweight or obese.
RESULTS:
From 1625 potentially eligible records, 14 articles (from 6 cohorts) were included. 2 cohorts were derived from RCTs. Evaluated pathologies were: articular cartilage (n = 7), joint space width (n = 3), bone marrow lesions (n = 5), synovitis (n = 2), effusion (n = 1), meniscus (n = 3), bone marrow density (n = 1) and infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP; n = 2). Cartilage showed conflicting results when evaluating cartilage thickness by direct thickness measurements. Compositional dGEMRIC and T2 mapping measures in early knee OA showed trends towards reduced cartilage degeneration. Joint space width on conventional radiographs showed no change. Weight loss reduced the size of the IPFP. Synovitis and effusion were not affected. Following weight loss DXA showed bone loss at the hip.
CONCLUSION:
We did not find consistent evidence of the effects of weight loss on OA structural pathology in people who are overweight or obese. There is a need to achieve consensus on which structural pathologies and measurements to apply in weight loss and OA research.