Development of a Multi-Modality Imaging Approach to evaluate Lupus Nephritis and initial results.

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Published by BMJ.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2019 June;78(2)


Lupus nephritis (LN) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in subjects with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The gold standard for evaluation of LN remains the kidney biopsy, whereas renal function is usually evaluated by eGFR and urinary protein:creatinine ratio. More effective and sensitive methodology is needed to assess LN and also the response to treatment. Functional imaging of the kidney using quantitative techniques has great potential, as it can assess kidney function and pathologic changes non-invasively by evaluating perfusion, oxygenation, cellular density and fibrosis.
To develop a multi-modality imaging approach for the evaluation of the spectrum of pathologic changes in LN.


In this multi-center study, subjects who were having a standard of care renal biopsy for LN were asked to participate in the imaging evaluation. Local Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, and subjects signed an Informed Consent Form. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) was employed to detect changes in vascularization and perfusion, Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) to assess interstitial diffusion, T2*Map/BOLD – the tissue oxygenation and T1rho to evaluate fibrosis. The imaging scores will be compared to renal biopsy, including ISN/RPS classification of LN, activity index and chronicity index.

Five patients have been evaluated to date and their imaging data assessed for quality. The initial results have demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring multi-modality imaging data, including dynamic imaging sequences, in the multi-center trial setting. Figure 1 illustrates scans from a representative patient. This study will determine whether multi-modality imaging could become an effective, non-invasive tool to assess renal function and pathology in LN.
The initial assessment of 5 LN subjects has established the feasibility of multi-modality imaging as a tool to evaluate LN in a multi-center study. By assessing functional and structural MRI outcomes and correlating them to clinical data, this study will provide essential preliminary evidence on the value of multi-modality imaging in diagnosis and evaluating the response to treatment of LN patients.

MRI Findings of Rapidly Progressive Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Copyright © Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2010 Jul;28(6) doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2010.03.005. Epub 2010 Apr 27.


The purpose of this study is to determine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and patient characteristics in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that exhibit rapid progression.
In this unblinded retrospective study, initial and follow up MR images were reviewed, before and after rapid progression of HCC, respectively. Rapid progression was defined as a lesion <3 cm which exhibited >3 cm increase in one year or 2 cm increase in 6 months. Patient characteristics and MRI findings were determined using clinical information from the institution clinical information system and records from the Radiology and Pathology Departments, Hepatology Division and Liver Transplant Service of the Department of Medicine.
Seven individuals were identified with HCC that showed rapid progression. Five of the patients had underlying hepatitis C, one had alcoholic hepatitis, and one had immunosuppression due to liver transplantation. On initial MRI, six patients had early intense ring enhancing lesions, which rapidly progressed in size. Five patients died within 6 months, one within 1 year after progression despite treatment. Six of the seven patients also had multiple other liver nodules on initial MRI; those that showed ring enhancement rapidly progressed but those without, did not show rapid progression.
Patients with rapidly progressive HCC had underlying hepatitis C and intense ring enhancement on initial MRI. This group of patients should be evaluated further to determine if they might benefit from early intervention.